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  1. reduce vt.减少,缩减
  The price of these shoes has been reduced since the New Year’s Day.
  The new bridge reduces the traveling time from 50 minutes to 15 minutes.
  reduce to减少到,使……变为(更小尺寸)
  reduce by减少了,(以……的比例)减少
  reduction n.缩减,减少,降低
  make a reduction打折扣
  at a reduction of打了……的折扣
  We can _________________ in price of the hat for you because we are now making a reduction.
  2. certain adj.确定的;某一个
  She is certain to do well in the examination.
  It’s about certain that the government will lose the next election.
  A certain person called on my yesterday.
  for certain 肯定地;确凿地(certainty n.)
  make certain of把……弄清楚
  make certain that+从句把……弄清楚
  注:certainty n.确实的事情
  with certainty肯定地
  3. suitable adj.合适的;适合的(suit v.)
  They are looking for a suitable person to take over Mr Brown’s job.
  The film is not suitable for children –it’s full of violence.
  fit 指大小、形状的合适,引申为吻合、协调。suit 指合乎需要、口味、条件、地位,以及花色、款式等与某人的皮肤、气质、身材或身份相称。match 多指大小、色调、形状、性质等的搭配
  (1)It doesn’t ________ you to have your hair cut short.
  (2)Carpets should ________ the curtains.
  (3)Does the coat ________ you?
  4. astonish vt.使惊讶
  What he said at the meeting astonished everyone present.
  I am astonished that he didn’t pass the exam.
  (2)其另一形容词astonishing 表示“令人惊讶的,惊人的”,如:
  It is astonishing to me that he should be present.
  注:astonishment n.惊讶
  in astonishment 惊讶地
  It was such an _________________________ performance that it astonished all the audiences.
  5. particular adj.特殊的;特别的
  There was nothing in the letter of particular importance.
  Are there particular topics that you would like me to explain further?
  in particular特别,尤其
  You should avoid eating fat meat, pork in particular.
  be particular about 对……挑剔,讲究的
  He’s very particular about what he eats.
  1. struggle for为……而斗争
  They had to struggle for their lives against the bad weather.
  People in that country are still struggling for peace.
  struggle with 与……作斗争
  struggle against与……作斗争
  carry on a struggle
  a life-and –death struggle生死搏斗
  struggle to one’s feet
  2. thanks to幸亏,因为
  Thanks to the efforts by the headmaster, I can go back to school now.
  It was thanks to his advice that I succeeded.
  because of/owing to/due to具有介词性质,后面要接something或somebody,不能接从句
  3. equip… with用……装备
  Our classroom is equipped with a TV set and a tape recorder.
  Equip yourself with everything that you’ll need in the future.
  equip…for/to do sth.
  equipment n.装备,设备(不可数名词)
  office equipment办公设备
  a piece of equipment一件设备(注意不说an equipment)
  Every classroom in some schools ________________________(equip) a computer for the convenience of teaching.
  4. would rather宁愿,宁可
  He’d rather work in the countryside.
  Jane would rather stay at home than go to such parties.
  (1)would rather…than…是一惯用句式,表示“宁可(愿)……(而)不要(愿)……
  (2)would rather+从句时,从句要用虚拟语气,用动词的过去时表示,如:
  I would rather you didn’t go to Tom’s party tomorrow evening.
  ---Would you mind my smoking?   ---I would rather _____.
  A. you don’t                                    B. you didn’t
  He _____________________(rather) walk home _____________ take a bus.
  1. lead a …life过着……的生活
  If the operation succeeds, the patient will be able to lead a normal life.
  2. supply…to 提供……给……
  The media supplies a lot of information to us every day.
  supply sth. to sb. = supply sb. with sth. = sth. be supplied to do
  the water supply供水
  in short supply供应不足
  3. be satisfied with对……表示满足或满意=be content with
  You’ve done well at school. I am really satisfied with you.
  4. refer to指的是提到,查阅
  When I said some people are stupid, I wasn’t referring to you.
  I don’t know the word. I have to refer to a dictionary.
  5. bump into (=knock into)碰撞;偶然碰到
  He bumped/knocked into his teacher in the street yesterday.
  6. pick up捡起,(用车)接某人,学会(语言),接收(节目),(无意)获得
  She soon picked up French when she went to live in France.
  7. deal with 与do with处理;对待
  ________ can they deal with waste water in this way?
  _________ should do with the problem?
  1. Wishing for things, however, cost nothing.然而,愿望是不花本钱的。
  wishing for things为动词的-ing形式做主语.动词的-ing形式由动词原形+ing构成,如:
  Collecting information is very important to businessmen.
  Learning a foreign language is very useful to me.
  to do 也可以作主语,但是表示一个具体的特定的动作,而doing更强调一个抽象的平常的动作。
  ________________________ basketball is very popular with boys in our school.
  ________________________ basketball is what I want to do this afternoon.
  2. Using his hybrid rice framers are producing harvests twice as large as before.用他的杂交水稻种子,农民种出比以前多一倍的粮食
  Asia is four times as large as Europe.
  Asia is three times larger than Europe.
  Asia is four times the size of Europe.
  The meeting room is __________________________________________(四倍大)as our classroom.
  3. Do you find it funny to see someone sliding on a banana skin?你看到有人被香蕉皮滑倒会觉得可笑吗?
  句中it是形式宾语,真正的宾语是不定式to see someone sliding on a banana skin,其中sliding on a banana skin是动词-ing作宾语补足语.所以本句包括两个结构:
  (1)find it+adj.+to do sth. 觉得做……很……
  I find it difficult to understand him.
  (2)see sb. /sth. doing sth.看见某人做某事
  Can you smell anything burning?
  I heard Mr. Smith singing in the next door.
  It is pretty well understood __________ controls the flow of carbon dioxide in and out the atmosphere today.
  A. that                B. when              C. what               D. how
  I hate ______ when people speak with mouthful.
  A. it                    B. that                C. because          D. for
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